Africa es li continente duesim in grandore del munde e li duesim plu populat pos Asia. Con circa 30,244,050 km² (11,677,240 mi²), includente li insules vicinal, it covri 20.3 percent del superficie total de terre sur li terra. Con plu quam 800 million habitantes homan in 54 states, it forma circa sett percent del population homan mundal.

Un vide recomposit del satellite de Africa

EtimologieRedacter

 
World map showing Africa (geographically)

Li nómine Africa esset introductet per li Romanes qui usat li nómine Africa terra - "land del Afri" por li part nord del continente, quam li provincia de Africa con su capitale Carthage, corespondent al Tunisia del témpor modern.

Li Afri esset un tribe — forsan Berberes — quel vivet in Nord-Africa in li region de Carthage. Li orígine de Afer es fórsan esser connexet con Phoenician `afar, polve (anc trovat in mult lingues semitic altri); de altri etimologies quo aparit por li nómine ancian 'Africa', e quo es li plu discussíbil, it es:

  • li parol Latin aprica, significant "solic";
  • li parol greci aphrike, significant "sin frigore". Li historico Leo Africanus (1495-1554) atribuet li orígine al parol grec phrike (φρικε, significant "frigore e horrore"), combinat con li prefixe negativ a-, dunc land sin frigore e horrore. Támen li changeament de son de ph a f in Grec e databil a circa li secul prim, ti pro quo ti ne posser vermen esser li orígine del nómine.

Egiptia esset considerat quam part de Asia per li ancianes, e ante omnicos assignat a Africa per li geograf Ptolemeus (85 - 165), qui hat acceptat Alexandria quam meridian prim e fat li istme de Suez e li Mare Rubi li lega ínter Asia e Africa. Quam Europans devenit conscient del extension real del continente, li idé de Africa augmentat con ti tention de conscientie.

GeografieRedacter

Articul principal: Geografie de Africa

 
Africa in li image blu, con Antarctica al sud, li Sahara e li Peninsul Arab al sómmite del globe.

Africa es li max larg del tri grand projectiones del pesa principal del superficie del terra. It include in su geometrie remarcabilmen regulari circa 30,244,050 km² (11,677,240 mi²), con li ínsules.

Separat del Europa per li Mare Mediterranean, it es ligat al Asia a su extremitá nord-ost per li Istme de Suez (transectet per li Canale de Suez), 130 km (80 miles) de long (Geopoliticalmen, li Penínsul del Sinai del Egiptia al ost del Canale de Suez es sovente considerat quam part del Africa.) del punctu li plu al nord, Cap Spartel in Morocco, un poc al west de Cape Blanc, in 37°21′ N, a li most sud punctu, Cape Agulhas in Sud-Africa, 34°51′15″ S, it es distantie aproximativ de 8,000 km (5,000 miles); de Cape Verde, 17°33′22″ W, li plu west punctu a Ras Hafun in Somalia, 51°27′52″ E, li most ost projection al ost, es distantie (dunc aproximativmen) de 7,400 km (4,600 miles). li longore del linea del cootes es 26,000 km (16,100 miles) e li absentie de cavettes profund del coste es visibil per li fact que Europa, quo covri solmen 9,700,000 km² (3,760,000 quadrat miles), have linea costal de 32,000 km (19,800 miles).

HistorieRedacter

 
Carte geografic de Africa 1890

Africa es li continente ú trova se li max ancian habitat territoria sur terre, ex quel originat li rasse homan. In li medie del 20esim secul, antropologos decovrit mult fossiles e evidentie de tost homan ocupation sur un periode tam long quam 7 million annus. Li famosi British/African Leakey family decovrit pluri species de tost ape-like homes thought a have evolved into modern day man, tam quam Australopithecus afarensis (carbon-dated a 3.9-3.0 million years BCE), Paranthropus boisei (2.3-1.4 million BCE) e Homo ergaster (c. 600,000-1.9 million BCE).

Li Ishango Bone, datat a c. ante 25 000 annus, monstra tallies in mathematical notation. Tra li prehistorie del homanité, Africa (just quam omni altri continentes) possedet null nation-states, e esset instead inhabitat per gruppes de hunter-gatherers tam quam li Khoi e San (formerly known quam bushmen).

Circa 3300 AC, li historic record aperte se in Africa con li ascendentie de literacy in Egiptia, which continued con varying nivelles de influentie sur altri areas til 343 PC. Altri prominent civilisationes include Etiopia, li Nubian kingdom, li kingdoms de li Sahel (Ghana, Mali, e Songhai) e Great Zimbabwe.

In 1482, li portugaleses etablisset li unesim de mult centres de comercie along li costa de Guinea in Elmina. Li chef commodities dealt in esset slaves, aure, ivor e spices. Li europan decovrition de America in 1492 esset sequet per un grand developation del slave trade, quel, before li Portuguese era, hat esset un overland trade almost exclusively, e never confined a any one continent.

Ma durant que li sclaveríe esset trovant su fine in Europa, in li tost 19esim secul li europan imperial potenties staged a massive "scramble por Africa" e ocupat li pluparte del continente, creante mani colonial nation-states, e lassante solmen du nationes índependent: Liberia, li Black American colony, e Ethiopia. Ti-ci occupation continuat til pos li conclusion de li Duesim Guerre Mundal, when all colonial states gradually obtenet formal independence.

Hodie, Africa es li hem de plu quam 50 índependent landes, omnis except 2 ancor possedente frontieras drawn up durant li era de European colonialisme.

EconomieRedacter

Africa es li max povri continente del munde: li United Nations' Human Development Report 2003 (de 175 landes) trovat que positiones 151 (Gambia) a 175 (Sierra Leone) esset completmen plenat per nationes african.

It ha havet (and in alqual maniere have ancor) un ínstabil e íncert transition de colonialisme, con increscementes in corruption e despotisme being major contributing factors a its poor economic situation. While rapid growth in China e now India, e moderate growth in South America, has lifted millions beyond subsistence living, Africa has gone backwards in terms de foreign trade, investment, e per capita income. This poverty has widespread effects, including lower life expectancy, violentie, e instabilitá - factors intertwined con li continent's poverty.

Li major economic success es South Africa, quel ha developat a li extent that it has its own mature stock exchange. Ti es in parte pro su abundantie de natural ressurses, essent li world's leading producer de both aure e diamantes, e partly due a its well-established legal system. South Africa also has access a capital, markets e know how.

Nigeria sede sur un ex li max grand proven oil reserves in li world e has li highest population among nationes in Africa, con one de li fastest growing. However, most de li oil industrie es foreign owned, e li industrie es rife con corruption al national level so that very litt oil money stays in li country, e what does goes a a very small percentage de li population.

DemographicsRedacter

Africanes may esser grouped secun sive ili vivi nord sive sud del Sahara Desert; ti gruppes are called North Africans e Sub-Saharan Africans, respectively. Arabic-speaking Arab-Berber peoples predominate in North Africa, while Sub-Saharan Africa es dominated per a number de disparate populations. There es a great diversity de physical types among Sub-Saharan African peoples -- ranging de li Masai e Tutsi, known por their tall stature, a Pygmies who are among li world's shortest adults.

Ad-látere del Nilotic gruppes de sudic Sudan, alcun Nilotic gruppes in Ethiopia, e un Bantu African minority in Somalia, Africans del Northeast parts de li continent typically have a different appearance de those in altri regions. Speakers de Bantu languages are li majority in southern, central e east Africa proper; but there are also several Nilotic groups in East Africa, e a few remaining indigenous Khoisan ('San' or 'Bushmen') e Pygmy peoples in sudic e central Africa, respectively. Bantu-speaking Africans also predominate in Gabon e Equatorial Guinea, e are found in parts de southern Cameroon e southern Somalia. In li Kalahari Desert de Southern Africa, li distinct people known quam li Bushmen (also "San", closely related to, but distinct de "Hottentots") have long been present. li San are physically distinct de altri Africans e are li indigenous people de southern Africa. "Pygmies" are li indigenous people de central Africa.

Li popules de Nord Africa are primarily Arab-Berber; li Arabs who arrived in li 7th century have assimilated li indigenous Berber people. li Semitic Phoenicians, e li European Greeks e Romans settled in North Africa quam well. Berber peoples remain a significant minority within Morocco e Algeria, e are present in Tunisia e Libya. li Tuareg e altri often-nomadic peoples are li principal inhabitants de li Saharan interior de North Africa. Nubians also developed civilizations in North Africa during ancient times.

During li past century or so, small but economically important colonies de Lebanese e Chinese have also developed in li larger coastal cities de West e East Africa, respectively.

Some Ethiopian e Eritrean groups (like li Amhara e Tigrayans, collectively known quam "Habesha") have Semitic (Sabaean) ancestry. li Somalis quam a people originated in li Ethiopian highlands, but most Somali clans can trace Arab ancestry quam well. Sudan e Mauritania are divided between a mostly Arab north e a native African south (although many de li Arabs de Sudan clearly have African ancestry, e are far off in appearance de Arabs in Iraq or Algeria). Some areas de East Africa, particularly li island de Zanzibar e li Kenyan island de Lamu, received Arab e Asian Muslim settlers e merchants throughout li Middle Ages.

Beginning in li 116im sécul, Europeans tam quam li Portuguese e Dutch began a establish trading posts e forts along li coasts de western e southern Africa. Eventually, a large number de Dutch, augmented per French Huguenots e Germans settled in what es today South Africa. Their descendants, li Afrikaners e li Coloureds, are li largest European-descended groups in Africa today. In li 19th century, a second phase de colonization brought a large number de French e British settlers a Africa. li Portuguese settled mainly in Angola, but also in Mozambique. li French settled in large numbers in Algeria where they became known collectively quam pieds-noirs, e sur a smaller scale in altri areas de North e West Africa quam well quam in Madagascar. li British settled chiefly in South Africa quam well quam li colony de Rhodesia, e in li highlands de what es now Kenya. Germans settled in what es now Tanzania e Namibia, e there es still a population de German-speaking white Namibians. Smaller numbers de European soldiers, businessmen, e officials also established themselves in administrative centers tam quam Nairobi e Dakar. Decolonization during li 1960s often resulted in li mass emigration de European-descended settlers out de Africa — especially de Algeria, Angola, Kenya e Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe). However, in South Africa e Namibia, li white minority remained politically dominant after independence de Europe, e a significant population de white Africans remained in these two countries even after democracy esset finally instituted at li end de li Cold War. South Africa has also become li preferred destination de white Anglo-Zimbabweans, e de migrants de all over southern Africa.

European colonization also brought sizeable groups de Asians, particularly people de li Indian subcontinent, a British colonies. Large Indian communities are found in South Africa, e smaller ones are present in Kenya, Tanzania, e some altri southern e east African countries. A fairly large Indian community in Uganda esset expelled per li dictator Idi Amin in 1972, though many have since returned. li islands in li Indian Ocean are also populated primarily per people de Asian origin, often mixed con Africans e Europeans. li Malagasy people de Madagascar are a Malay people, but those along li coast are generally mixed con Bantu, Arab, Indian e European origins. Malay e Indian ancestries are also important components in li group de people known in South Africa quam Coloureds (people con origins in two or more races e continents).

CulturaRedacter

Vice un sol cultura, Africa have pluri culturas coincident. Li disintion max conventional es ti ínter Sub-Saharan Africa e li paises al nord de Egiptia a Marocco, quel associa se con li cultura Arabic. Per ti ci comparation, li nationes al sude del Sahara es considerat a consister in mult areas cultural, particularmen ti del gruppe linguistic Bantu.

On posse far anc divisiones inter li parte de Africa quel parla Francesi e li rest de Africa, precipue li anteyan colonias Britannic de Africa sudic e oriental. Un altri linea divident es ti inter tis Africanes quel seque un stil de vive traditional e tis quel es, essentialmen, modern. Li traditionalistes es quelcvez dividet in pastoralistes e agriculturalistes.

African art reflecte li diversitá de african culturas. Li max ancian existent arte de Africa es 6000-year old carvings found in Niger, durant que li Great Pyramid de Giza in Egiptia esset li world's tallest architectural accomplishment por quar mill annus til li creation del Eiffel Tower. Li Ethiopian complex de monolithic churches at Lalibela, de which li Church de St. George es representative, es egardat quam un altri marvel de ingenieríe.

Li musica de Africa es un de su formes de art max dinamic. Egiptia has long been a cultural focus de li Arab world, while remembrance de li rhythms de sub-Saharan Africa, particularimen west Africa, esset transmitted through li Atlantic slave trade a modern blues, jazz, reggae, rap, e rock e roll. Modern music de li continent includes li highly complex choral singing de southern Africa e li dance rhythms de soukous, dominat per li music de li Democratic Republic de Congo. Un recent developament del 21im secul es li emergentie de African hip hop, in particular a form de Senegal es mixtet con traditional mbalax. Recentmen in South Africa, un forme de musica relatet a house music conosset sub li nómine Kwaito ha developat se, benque li land ha esset li hem a su propri forme de South African jazz por some time, while Afrikaans music es completely distinct e comprised mostly de traditional Boere musiek, e formes de Folk e Rock.

TerritoriesRedacter

 
Political Map de Africa
 
Physical map de Africa

Independent statesRedacter

East Africa

Ost Africa proper

Nord Ost Africa

Central Africa

Nord Africa

Sud Africa

West Africa

African Insul States

Territories, possessions, départementsRedacter

Territorias disputatRedacter

Vide ancRedacter